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What is the treatment of Japanese Encephalitis?


Management of Encephalitis is essentially symptomatic. To reduce severe morbidity and mortality, it is important to identify early warning signs (irritability, somnolence or abnormal behaviour greater than that seen with usual febrile illness and/or new onset of seizures (excluding simple febrile seizures) and refer patients to nearest Govt. health facility.

Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment for Japanese encephalitis (JE) that can directly target the virus. Therefore, the management of JE primarily focuses on supportive care to relieve symptoms and complications. Here are the key aspects of treatment for Japanese encephalitis:

  1. Hospitalization:Severe cases of JE often require hospitalization for close monitoring and medical care. This is particularly important for patients with neurological complications or those experiencing severe symptoms.
  2. Supportive care:Supportive measures are provided to manage symptoms and help the patient to fight the infection. These may include:
  • Medications for fever and pain relief:Acetaminophen (paracetamol) may be given to reduce fever and relieve headache or body aches. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are generally avoided due to the risk of bleeding complications.
  • Fluid management:Adequate hydration is essential, especially if the patient has high fever, vomiting, or diarrhoea. Intravenous fluids may be administered if necessary.