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JE viral activity has been widespread in India. The first evidence of presence of JE virus dates back to 1952. First case was reported in 1955.

. Here are some key points about the extent of the problem of Japanese encephalitis in India:

  1. Endemic regions: Japanese encephalitis is considered endemic in several states of India, especially in the northeastern and northern parts of the country.

Outbreaks have been reported from different parts of the country. It is endemic in 327 districts of 24 states.

  1. Seasonal outbreaks: JE cases in India often follow a seasonal pattern, with increased transmission during the monsoon and post-monsoon periods when mosquito populations are higher. Outbreaks typically occur from May to October, peaking during the rainy season.
  2. High burden of cases: India accounts for a significant proportion of JE cases globally. The exact number of cases can vary from year to year, but several thousand cases are reported annually. However, it is worth noting that the reported numbers may not fully reflect the actual burden due to underreporting and challenges in surveillance.
  3. Impact on vulnerable populations: Japanese encephalitis primarily affects children and individuals living in rural areas, especially those involved in agricultural activities. Children under the age of 15 are particularly susceptible to severe forms of the disease, and the infection can lead to long-term neurological complications or death.
  4. Vaccination efforts: In response to the burden of Japanese encephalitis, India has implemented vaccination programs in endemic areas. Vaccination coverage has been expanded in recent years, targeting children in endemic regions to reduce the incidence of the disease.
  5. Vector control measures: Mosquito control programs, including larval source reduction, use of insecticide-treated bed nets, and community-based initiatives, are important strategies for preventing the spread of JE in affected areas.

Efforts are ongoing to enhance surveillance, improve access to vaccination, and strengthen vector control measures to mitigate the impact of Japanese encephalitis in India. Public health authorities continue to work towards reducing the burden of the disease through comprehensive prevention and control strategies.